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German French Italian English. Eastern Europe Azerbaijan. Azerbaijani English. Lusitani tribes battled the Romans for generations before acceding to empire, whereupon Rome established several important towns and ports; the Roman presence can be seen in the very name of the country, which derives from Portus Cale, a settlement near the mouth of the Douro River and the present-day city of Porto.
Later, the descendants of Romans and the Lusitani would live under Moorish rule for several centuries until an independent kingdom was established.
Much of that empire was quickly lost, but even then Portugal retained sizable holdings along the African coast, in southern and eastern Asia , and in South America.
Portugal remained a colonial power until the mids, when a peaceful revolution transformed the country from a dictatorship into a democratic republic.
Portuguese sailors set out to reach Eastern Asia by sailing eastward from Europe, landing in such places as Taiwan, Japan, the island of Timor , and in the Moluccas.
Although for a long period it was believed the Dutch were the first Europeans to arrive in Australia, there is also some evidence that the Portuguese may have discovered Australia in Magellan never made it back to Europe as he was murdered by natives in the Philippines in The Treaty of Zaragoza , signed on 22 April between Portugal and Spain, specified the anti-meridian to the line of demarcation specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas.
All these factors made Portugal one of the world's major economic, military, and political powers from the 15th century until the late 16th century.
Portugal voluntarily entered a dynastic union between and Portugal did not lose its formal independence, briefly forming a union of kingdoms.
At this time Spain was a geographic territory. War led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal's oldest ally, England , and the loss of Hormuz , a strategic trading post located between Iran and Oman.
From to the Dutch-Portuguese War primarily involved the Dutch companies invading many Portuguese colonies and commercial interests in Brazil, Africa, India and the Far East, resulting in the loss of the Portuguese Indian sea trade monopoly.
In , John IV of Portugal spearheaded an uprising backed by disgruntled nobles and was proclaimed king. This was the beginning of the House of Braganza , which reigned in Portugal until Pedro's reign saw the consolidation of national independence, imperial expansion, and investment in domestic production.
Disregarding traditional Portuguese institutions of governance, John V acted as an absolute monarch, nearly depleting the country's tax revenues on ambitious architectural works, most notably Mafra Palace , and on commissions and additions for his sizeable art and literary collections.
Owing to his craving for international diplomatic recognition, John also spent large sums on the embassies he sent to the courts of Europe, the most famous being those he sent to Paris in and Rome in John V died the following year and his son, Joseph I , was crowned.
As the King's confidence in Carvalho e Melo increased, the King entrusted him with more control of the state. Impressed by British economic success that he had witnessed from his time as an Ambassador, he successfully implemented similar economic policies in Portugal.
He abolished slavery in mainland Portugal and in the Portuguese colonies in India, reorganized the army and the navy, restructured the University of Coimbra , and ended legal discrimination against different Christian sects in Portugal by abolishing the distinction between Old and New Christians.
Carvalho e Melo's greatest reforms were economic and financial, with the creation of several companies and guilds to regulate every commercial activity.
He created one of the first appellation systems in the world by demarcating the region for production of Port to ensure the wine's quality; and this was the first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe.
He ruled with a strong hand by imposing strict law upon all classes of Portuguese society from the high nobility to the poorest working class, along with a widespread review of the country's tax system.
These reforms gained him enemies in the upper classes, especially among the high nobility, who despised him as a social upstart. Disaster fell upon Portugal in the morning of 1 November , when Lisbon was struck by a violent earthquake with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.
The city was razed to the ground by the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami and ensuing fires.
We bury the dead and take care of the living. Despite the calamity and huge death toll , Lisbon suffered no epidemics and within less than one year was already being rebuilt.
The new city centre of Lisbon was designed to resist subsequent earthquakes. Architectural models were built for tests, and the effects of an earthquake were simulated by having troops march around the models.
The buildings and large squares of the Pombaline Downtown still remain as one of Lisbon's tourist attractions. Carvalho e Melo also made an important contribution to the study of seismology by designing a detailed inquiry on the effects of the earthquake, the Parochial Memories of , that was sent to every parish in the country; this wealth of information allows modern scientists to reconstruct the event with some degree of scientific precision.
Following the earthquake, Joseph I gave his Prime Minister even more power, and Carvalho de Melo became a powerful, progressive dictator.
As his power grew, his enemies increased in number, and bitter disputes with the upper nobility became frequent. In Joseph I was wounded in an attempted assassination.
The following year, the Jesuits were suppressed and expelled from the country and their assets confiscated by the crown.
Carvalho e Melo spared none involved, even women and children notably, 8-year-old Leonor de Almeida Portugal , imprisoned in a convent for nineteen years.
This was the final stroke that crushed all opposition by publicly demonstrating even the aristocracy was powerless before the King's loyal minister.
In , Spain invaded Portuguese territory as part of the Seven Years' War , but by the status quo between Spain and Portugal before the war had been restored.
However, historians also argue that Pombal's "enlightenment," while far-reaching, was primarily a mechanism for enhancing autocracy at the expense of individual liberty and especially an apparatus for crushing opposition, suppressing criticism, and furthering colonial economic exploitation as well as intensifying book censorship and consolidating personal control and profit.
With the occupation by Napoleon, Portugal began a slow but inexorable decline that lasted until the 20th century.
This decline was hastened by the independence of Brazil , the country's largest colonial possession.
In the autumn of , Napoleon moved French troops through Spain to invade Portugal. From to , British-Portuguese forces would successfully fight against the French invasion of Portugal in the Peninsular War , during which the royal family and the Portuguese nobility , including Maria I, relocated to the Portuguese territory of Brazil , at that time a colony of the Portuguese Empire , in South America.
This episode is known as the Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil. In , Brazil was declared a Kingdom and the Kingdom of Portugal was united with it, forming a pluricontinental state, the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
As a result of the change in its status and the arrival of the Portuguese royal family, Brazilian administrative, civic, economical , military, educational , and scientific apparatus were expanded and highly modernized.
However, the King of Portugal remained in Brazil until the Liberal Revolution of , which started in Porto , demanded his return to Lisbon in Thus he returned to Portugal but left his son Pedro in charge of Brazil.
When the Portuguese Government attempted the following year to return the Kingdom of Brazil to subordinate status, his son Pedro, with the overwhelming support of the Brazilian elites, declared Brazil's independence from Portugal.
Cisplatina today's sovereign state of Uruguay , in the south, was one of the last additions to the territory of Brazil under Portuguese rule.
Brazilian independence was recognized in , whereby Emperor Pedro I granted to his father the titular honour of Emperor of Brazil.
John VI's death in caused serious questions in his succession. Though Pedro was his heir, and reigned briefly as Pedro IV, his status as a Brazilian monarch was seen as an impediment to holding the Portuguese throne by both nations.
However, Pedro's brother, Infante Miguel , claimed the throne in protest. In order to defend his daughter's rights to the throne, Pedro launched the Liberal Wars to reinstall his daughter and establish a constitutional monarchy in Portugal.
The war ended in , with Miguel's defeat, the promulgation of a constitution, and the reinstatement of Queen Maria II.
Under his reign, roads, telegraphs, and railways were constructed and improvements in public health advanced. His popularity increased when, during the cholera outbreak of —, he visited hospitals handing out gifts and comforting the sick.
At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal had already lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia.
During this phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there.
With the Conference of Berlin of , Portuguese territories in Africa had their borders formally established on request of Portugal in order to protect the centuries-long Portuguese interests in the continent from rivalries enticed by the Scramble for Africa.
Even before the turn of the 20th century, railway tracks as the Benguela railway in Angola, and the Beira railway in Mozambique, started to be built to link coastal areas and selected inland regions.
Other episodes during this period of the Portuguese presence in Africa include the British Ultimatum. This forced the Portuguese military to retreat from the land between the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola most of present-day Zimbabwe and Zambia , which had been claimed by Portugal and included in its " Pink Map ", which clashed with British aspirations to create a Cape to Cairo Railway.
His second and youngest son, Manuel II of Portugal , became the new king, but was eventually overthrown by the 5 October Portuguese republican revolution , which abolished the monarchy and installed a republican government in Portugal, causing him and his royal family to flee into exile in London , England.
The new republic had many problems. Portugal had 45 different governments in just 15 years. But the war hurt its weak economy.
Political instability and economic weaknesses were fertile ground for chaos and unrest during the First Portuguese Republic. Portugal remained neutral in World War II.
Gradually, new economic development projects and relocation of mainland Portuguese citizens into the overseas provinces in Africa were initiated, with Angola and Mozambique , as the largest and richest overseas territories, being the main targets of those initiatives.
These actions were used to affirm Portugal's status as a transcontinental nation and not as a colonial empire. After India attained independence in , pro-Indian residents of Dadra and Nagar Haveli , with the support of the Indian government and the help of pro-independence organizations, separated the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese rule in Another forcible retreat from overseas territories occurred in December when Portugal refused to relinquish the territories of Goa , Daman and Diu in India.
As a result, the Portuguese army and navy were involved in armed conflict in its colony of Portuguese India against the Indian Armed Forces.
The operations resulted in the defeat and surrender of the limited Portuguese defensive garrison, which was forced to surrender to a much larger military force.
The outcome was the loss of the remaining Portuguese territories in the Indian subcontinent. The Portuguese regime refused to recognize Indian sovereignty over the annexed territories, which continued to be represented in Portugal's National Assembly until the military coup of Also in the early s, independence movements in the Portuguese overseas provinces of Angola , Mozambique and Guinea in Africa, resulted in the Portuguese Colonial War — Throughout the colonial war period Portugal had to deal with increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by most of the international community.
This period was characterized by social turmoil and power disputes between left- and right-wing political forces.
By the summer of , the tension between these was so high, that the country was on the verge of civil war.
The main episode of this confrontation was the successful assault on the barracks of the left-wing dominated Military Police Regiment by the moderate forces of the Commando Regiment, resulting in three soldiers killed in action.
The Group of Nine emerged victorious, thus preventing the establishment of a communist state in Portugal and ending the period of political instability in the country.
The retreat from the overseas territories and the acceptance of its independence terms by Portuguese head representatives for overseas negotiations, which would create independent states in , prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories mostly from Portuguese Angola and Mozambique.
Over one million Portuguese refugees fled the former Portuguese provinces as white settlers were usually not considered part of the new identities of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia.
By , all the Portuguese African territories were independent and Portugal held its first democratic elections in 50 years. In this capacity Soares tried to resume the economic growth and development record that had been achieved before the Carnation Revolution, during the last decade of the previous regime.
He initiated the process of accession to the European Economic Community EEC by starting accession negotiations as early as After the transition to democracy, Portugal bounced between socialism and adherence to the neoliberal model.
Land reform and nationalizations were enforced; the Portuguese Constitution approved in was rewritten in order to accommodate socialist and communist principles.
Until the constitutional revisions of and , the constitution was a document with numerous references to socialism, the rights of workers, and the desirability of a socialist economy.
Portugal's economic situation after the revolution obliged the government to pursue International Monetary Fund IMF -monitored stabilization programs in —78 and — In , the independence of East Timor Asia was formally recognized by Portugal, after an incomplete decolonization process that was started in because of the Carnation Revolution, but interrupted by an Indonesian armed invasion and occupation.
On 26 March , Portugal started to implement Schengen Area rules, eliminating border controls with other Schengen members while simultaneously strengthening border controls with non-member states.
In , Jorge Sampaio became president. He won re-election in January Expo '98 took place in Portugal and in it was one of the founding countries of the euro and the eurozone.
It was initially rejected by voters in The territory of Portugal includes an area on the Iberian Peninsula referred to as the continent by most Portuguese and two archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean: the archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores.
Mainland Portugal is split by its main river, the Tagus , that flows from Spain and disgorges in the Tagus Estuary , in Lisbon, before escaping into the Atlantic.
The northern landscape is mountainous towards the interior with several plateaus indented by river valleys, whereas the south, including the Algarve and the Alentejo regions, is characterized by rolling plains.
Portugal's highest peak is the similarly named Mount Pico on the island of Pico in the Azores. The archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores are scattered within the Atlantic Ocean: the Azores straddling the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on a tectonic triple junction, and Madeira along a range formed by in-plate hotspot geology.
Geologically, these islands were formed by volcanic and seismic events. The last terrestrial volcanic eruption occurred in —58 Capelinhos and minor earthquakes occur sporadically, usually of low intensity.
This is the 3rd largest exclusive economic zone of the European Union and the 20th largest in the world. Portugal is defined as a Mediterranean climate Csa in the South, interior, and Douro region; Csb in the North, Central coastal Portugal and a small portion of western Algarve ,  but has other climatic characteristics such as a Temperate Maritime climate Cfb in the mountains located in Northwestern sector mainland and also in some high altitude zones of Azorean islands, a Semi-arid climate in certain parts of Beja district far South BSk and in Porto Santo Island BSh , a Warm Desertic climate BWh in the Selvagens Islands and a Humid subtropical climate in the western Azores Cfa , according to the Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification.
There are however, variations from the highlands to the lowlands: Spanish biologist Salvador Rivas Martinez presents several different bioclimatic zones for Portugal.
The record high of In these places snow can fall any time from October to May. In the South of the country snowfalls are rare but still occur in the highest elevations.
Portugal's west and southwest coasts have an extreme ocean seasonal lag , sea temperatures are warmer in October than in July and are their coldest in March.
Both the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira have a subtropical climate, although variations between islands exist, making weather predictions very difficult owing to rough topography.
Some islands in Azores do have drier months in the summer. Consequently, the islands of the Azores have been identified as having a Mediterranean Climate both Csa and Csb types , while some islands such as Flores or Corvo are classified as Humid subtropical Cfa , transitioning into an Oceanic climate Cfb at higher altitudes, according to Köppen-Geiger classification.
The sea surface temperature in these islands varies from Despite the fact that Portugal has been occupied by humans for thousands of years, there is still a lot that's left of its original biome.
Due to the human population decrease and rural exodus, Pyrenean oak and other local native trees are colonizing many abandoned areas.
Boar , Iberian red deer, roe deer, and the Iberian wild goat, are reported to have expanded greatly during recent decades. Boars were found recently roaming at night inside large urban areas, like in Setubal.
These natural environments are shaped by diverse flora, and include widespread species of pine especially the Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea species , the English oak Quercus robur , the Pyrenean oak Quercus pyrenaica the chestnut Castanea sativa , the cork-oak Quercus suber , the holm oak Quercus ilex or the Portuguese oak Quercus faginea.
Due to their economic value, some species of the genus Eucalyptus were introduced and are now common, despite their environmental impact.
Laurisilva is a unique type of subtropical rainforest, which nowadays, in Europe, is only restricted to the Iberian Peninsula: in the Azores, and in particular on the island of Madeira, there are large forests of endemic Laurisilva the latter protected as a natural heritage preserve.
There are several species of diverse mammalian fauna, including the fox , badger , iberian lynx , iberian wolf , wild goat Capra pyrenaica , wild cat Felis silvestris , hare , weasel , polecat , chameleon , mongoose , civet , the occasional brown bear  and many others.
Portugal is an important stopover for migratory birds, in places such as Cape St. Vincent or the Monchique mountains, where thousands of birds cross from Europe to Africa during the autumn or in the spring return migration.
Most of the avian species congregate along the Iberian Peninsula since it is the closest stopover between Northern Europe and Africa.
Six hundred bird species occur in Portugal either for nesting or during the course of migration , and annually there are new registries of nesting species.
The archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are transient stopover for American, European, and African birds, while continental Portugal mostly encounters European and African bird species.
There are more than freshwater fish species, varying from the giant European catfish in the Tagus International Natural Park to some small and endemic species that live only in small lakes along the western portion of country, for example.
Some of these rare and specific species are highly endangered because of habitat loss, pollution and drought.
Up-welling along the west coast of Portugal makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and diverse species of marine fish; the Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in the world.
Marine fish species are more common, and include thousands of species, such as the sardine Sardina pilchardus , tuna and Atlantic mackerel.
Bioluminescent species are also well represented including species in different colour spectrum and forms , like the glowing plankton that are possible to observe on some beaches.
There are many endemic insect species, most only found in certain parts of Portugal, while other species are more widespread like the stag beetle Lucanus cervus and the cicada.
The Macaronesian islands Azores and Madeira have many endemic species like birds, reptiles, bats, insects, snails and slugs that evolved independently from other regions of Portugal.
In Madeira, for example, it is possible to observe more than species of land gastropods. Portugal has been a semi-presidential representative democratic republic since the ratification of the Constitution of , with Lisbon , the nation's largest city, as its capital [ citation needed ].
The Constitution grants the division or separation of powers among four bodies referred as "organs of Sovereignty": the President of the Republic , the Government , the Assembly of the Republic and the Courts.
The President, who is elected to a five-year term, has an executive role: the current President is Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa.
The Assembly of the Republic is a single chamber parliament composed of a maximum of deputies elected for a four-year term.
The Courts are organized into several levels, among the judicial, administrative and fiscal branches. A thirteen-member Constitutional Court oversees the constitutionality of the laws.
The Head of State of Portugal is the President of the Republic , elected to a five-year term by direct, universal suffrage.
He or she has also supervision and reserve powers. Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the Government where the President takes into account the results of legislative elections ; dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly of the Republic to call early elections ; vetoing legislation which may be overridden by the Assembly ; and declaring a state of war or siege.
The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State , which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president.
The Government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the public administration.
It has essentially Executive powers, but has also limited legislative powers. The Government can legislate about its own organization, about areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly of the Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws issued by the Assembly.
The Council of Ministers — under the presidency of the Prime Minister or the President of Portugal at the latter's request and the Ministers may also include one or more Deputy Prime Ministers — acts as the cabinet.
Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a programme, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate.
The failure of the Assembly to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of deputies confirms the cabinet in office.
The Assembly of the Republic , in Lisbon, is the national parliament of Portugal. It is the main legislative body, although the Government also has limited legislative powers.
The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to deputies. Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of closed party-list proportional representation , deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections.
The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system, also called the continental family legal system. The main laws include the Constitution , as amended , the Portuguese Civil Code , as amended and the Penal Code of Portugal , as amended.
Other relevant laws are the Commercial Code , as amended and the Civil Procedure Code , as amended. The Public Ministry , headed by the Attorney General of the Republic, constitutes the independent body of public prosecutors.
Portuguese laws were applied in the former colonies and territories and continue to be major influences for those countries.
Portugal was the first country in the world to abolish life imprisonment in and was one of the first countries to abolish the death penalty.
Maximum jail sentences are limited to 25 years. Portugal is also known for having decriminalized the usage of all common drugs in , the first country in the world to do so.
Portugal decriminalized possession of effectively all drugs that are still illegal in other developed nations including cannabis , cocaine , heroin , and LSD.
While possession is legal, trafficking and possession of more than "10 days worth of personal use" are still punishable by jail time and fines.
People caught with small amounts of any drug are given the choice to go to a rehab facility, and may refuse treatment without consequences.
Despite criticism from other European nations, who stated Portugal's drug consumption would tremendously increase, overall drug use has declined along with the number of HIV infection cases, which had dropped 50 percent by Drug use among to year-olds also declined, however the use of marijuana rose only slightly among that age group.
The top two teams, Ukraine and Portugal, qualified directly for the finals. Unlike previous editions, the participants of the play-offs were not decided based on results from the qualifying group stage, but instead based on their performance in the —19 UEFA Nations League.
A player was automatically suspended for the next match for the following offences: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Stade Josy Barthel , Luxembourg City. Attendance: 3, . Referee: Roi Reinshreiber Israel. Attendance: 58, . Attendance: 4, .
Referee: Mattias Gestranius Finland.